University of Bristol - Historical Photographs of China reference number: BL-s001. This photograph is sometimes miscaptioned. It was reproduced in ‘Harmsworth History of the World’, vol 2 (edited by Arthur Mee et al, Carmelite House, 1908), and captioned: ‘THE JAPANESE ADMINISTRATION OF KOREA This photographic reproduction gives a grim picture of the summary methods adopted by the Japanese officials in disposing of the inmates of a Korean gaol’. An old print sold on ebay was captioned on the photograph: ‘Hanging of Chinese River Pirates at Chefoo’. The image was published on page 299 in ‘A Century of Japanese Photography’, edited by John W. Dower (Hutchinson, 1981) and captioned: ‘Persons executed in Korea for participating in the March 1 Movement for Korean independence. 1919’.

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Black and white photograph