University of Bristol - Historical Photographs of China reference number: Da01-07. From an album inscribed to Herbert Wilcockson from C. E. Darwent. The Revd. C.E. Darwent, Minister of the Union Church (visible in the middle of this photograph), was also a photographer and author of a photographer-friendly guidebook to Shanghai: https://archive.org/details/cu31924023217825 "Shanghai: a handbook for travellers and residents to the chief objects of interest in and around the foreign settlement and native city" (1904). A power wheel under the thatch, drives the pump, which raises water from a waterway to flood a paddy field.
Irrigation water wheel, near Shanghai