Historical Photographs of China reference for this set: Nh14. Gungho - Chinese Industrial Co-operatives (CIC) and Shantan Bailie School 中國工業合作社ðð山丹培黎學校.

Blindfolded mules pulling the mashes to make paper pulp at one of the Chinese Industrial Co-operatives (CIC) (Zhong guo gong ye he zuo she 中國工業合作社) in Shensi province (Shaanxi) 陝西

Photographs from the collection may be reproduced only with written permission. For permissions, contact the Librarian, East Asian History of Science Library, Needham Research Institute. Further information about the library and the ‘Joseph Needham Photographs – Wartime China, 1943-1946’:

Caption on mount
Paper making cooperative. Blindfolded mules pull the mashes around the circular trough. Although the methods are primitive, the paper is excellent quality and used by the printing cooperative nearby for army dept books.

Estimated date
1 January 1945 - 1 January 1946
Black and white photograph
Needham Research Institute, Cambridge